MAP SKILLS AND ENVIRONMENT
7. (a) The mean monthly temperature for the first half of the year
= Mean temperature for the months of January – June
= or 26.33
(b) The annual temperature range
= Highest temperature – Lowest temperature
= 27 – 23
(c) Total annual rainfall
= 43 + 53 + 137 + 145 + 183 + 234 + 127 + 74 + 178 + 201 + 99 + 30
8. Types of slope
(a) Gentle slope
The land form of gentle slope rises gradually from the ground to the top. The contour lines are well spaced out.
(b) Steep slope
The land rises rapidly. Contour lines that indicate steep slope are closely packed.
(c) Concave slope
It slopes gently from the base but becomes steep from the mid-portion to the summit.
Its contours are widely spaced at the lower part and gradually become close as it rises above the sea level.
(d) Convex slope
The slope of the land is steep at the base / lower part and becomes more gently at the higher
parts. The contours of the convex are closely packed at the beginning and then widens as the land rises higher.
THE NATIONAL COMMUNITY
9. The importance of rivers in Ghana
(i) Means of Transportation
– Canoes, boats, ferries, etc are used to transport persons and goods on certain rivers.
(ii) Source of water for domestic purposes
– People fetch water from rivers for domestic uses, such as bathing, cooking, washing, and drinking. The Ghana Water Company also gets water from our rivers for treatment and supply as potable water
(iii) Source of water for industrial purposes
– Certain industries rely on water from rivers for some of their industrial operations
(iv) Source of food (fish / protein)
– Fishermen in Ghana obtain fish from our rivers
(v) Source of employment
– Rivers provide employment and therefore income both directly and indirectly to people such as fishermen, tour guides, Volta River Authority workers, farmers, etc.
(vi) Generation of hydroelectric power
– The Akosombo dam generates electricity for the entire country using water from the Volta River. The Bui dam, also for generation of hydroelectric power is still under construction.
(vii) Tourist attraction sites
– Certain rivers serve as tourist attractions, which help to generate income and foreign exchange for the country.
(viii) Irrigation of farmlands
– In areas where there is little or no rainfall, farmers rely on river to water their crops
(ix) Drainage system to prevent flooding
– When rain falls, the water runs into gutters / drains, which carry them into rivers. This prevents flooding of communities.
(x) Habitat for aquatic organisms
– Several organisms and micro organisms in the ecosystem live in various rivers
(xi) Source of minerals
– Certain rivers have mineral deposits in them, eg, alluvial gold in Rivers Birim, Pra and
Offin, alluvial diamond in the Birim River .
(xii) Helps in rain formation
– Large amounts of water vapour in the atmosphere come from water evaporation from the surface of rivers. The water vapour rises higher, becomes cooler, condenses and falls as rain.
10. (a) Duties of a citizen of Ghana.
(i) Respecting the rights of others (ii) Obeying the laws of the land (iii) Paying taxes to the Government
(iv) Protecting public / state property
(v) Assisting state institutions
(vi) Defending the constitution of Ghana
(vii) Participating in national / regional / communal events, such as voting, communal labour, etc
(viii) Defending the state in times of crisis or invasion [any three]
(b) Rights of a citizen of Ghana.
(i) Right to life
(ii) Right to personal liberty
(iii) Right to dignity)
(iv) Right to private property
(v) Right to freedom of expression
(vi) Right to freedom of association
(vii) Right to freedom of religion
(viii) Right to equality [any two]
WEST AFRICA, AFRICA AND THE WORLD
11. (a) Conditions necessary for economic growth and high productivity.
(i) Employing workers with the right training, knowledge, skills and attitudes. (ii) Ensuring the correct use of efficient working tools
(iii) Applying current / modern methods of production
(iv) Providing regular in-service training and refresher courses for workers.
(v) Motivating workers with various incentives, such as, awards/rewards, scholarships for further studies
(vi) Paying fair wages and salaries to workers
(vii) Ensuring effective and regular supervision, monitoring, assessment and evaluation. (viii) Making sure that the working environment is comfortable and conducive for work (ix) Financial institutions should be more willing to offer more credit facilities for
establishment and expansion of businesses
(x) Codes of ethics at workplaces must be studied and applied regularly
(xi) Ensuring effective management and administration
(xii) Effective planning and implementation [any four]
(b) Reasons why Ghana’s economy is not growing.
(i) Lack of ready market for certain goods
(ii) Inadequate checks against economic mismanagement and corruption
(iii) Negative attitude towards work
(iv) Ineffective monitoring, evaluation and assessment. (v) Irregular supply of electricity
(vi) Inadequate supply of water for production
(vii) Insufficient capital for adequate growth and expansion
(viii) Inadequate supply of labour (workers) with the right skills, knowledge and attitudes
(ix) Inadequate use of modern technology and methods
(x) High tax burden on industries and businesses
(xi) Low development of transportation network
(xii) Insufficient supply of raw materials and equipment
(xiii) High costs of production inputs [any three]
12. (a) Aims of the United Nations Organization (UNO)
(i) To maintain world peace
(ii) To develop good relations among countries
(iii) To promote cooperation in solving the world‟s problems
(iv) To encourage respect for human rights
(v) To prevent the recurrence of another world war
(b) Problems facing the United Nations Organization (UNO) (i) Financial difficulties
The UNO does not have enough funds to implements all its programmes effectively. This is partly due to the inability of some member states to pay their dues to the UNO regularly. The ever growing world problems also put a huge strain on the limited funds of the organization
(ii) Political hindrances
Each of the five permanent members of the Security Council has what is referred to as
„veto power‟. With this power, they can block an action that the other states have agreed upon to pursue. As a result, the organization many times is unable to act in a certain way to achieve a desired result – simply because, one permanent member has exercised her veto power to block the action, probably because it may not suit her.
(iii) Absence of regular peace-keeping troops
The UNO does not have regular (ever ready) troops for peace-keeping. So in case of a crisis situation, a lot of time could be wasted trying to assemble troops from various countries. This could cause delays in timely intervention, which could make the crisis situation worse.
(iv) Numerous socio-cultural difficulties
Several countries or regions of the world are faced with numerous socio-economic problems such as epidemics (fast-spreading disease), human rights abuses, educational difficulties, developmental difficulties, etc. The UNO is struggling to appropriately address these challenges.
(v) International crime and terrorism
The UNO is finding it quite difficult to cope with the rising cases of international crimes and terrorism, such as suicide bombings, hijacking of planes / ships, drug trafficking etc.
(vi) Non-cooperation of some member states
Certain member states do not cooperate when it comes to certain issues, because they believe it does not favour them. Consequently, they may refuse to sign certain resolutions and / or may not abide by them, even when they sign. This sets back the mission of the