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Home / Social Studies / BECE Past Questions & Answers – 1999 (SOCIAL STUDIES)

BECE Past Questions & Answers – 1999 (SOCIAL STUDIES)

CLICK TO VIEW ANSWERS TO PART 2
August 1999

SOCIAL STUDIES

SOLUTIONS

SECTION B
ESSAY

PART I
MAP SKILLS AND ENVIRONMENT

7. (a)

(v) Direction of Nsebiso from Dano
West or western direction

(vi) Contour interval in metres
100 metres

(vii) Distance by road from Abinso to Lampa in kilometers
5 km or 6 km (approx)

(viii) Direction of flow of River Abiri
East to West

(b) The features marked A, B, C and Z on the map
A – Plateau
B – Waterfall
C – Ridge
Z – Hill

(c)
(i)
Type of settlement at Nsebiso
Linear

(ii)
The main occupation of the people of Dano District
Farmers

8. (a) State five characteristics of the harmattan

(i) It is dry (ie, it has low water vapour content / low humidity) (ii) It feels hot during the day and cold at night
(iii) It carries a lot of dust particles
(iv) Blows from the north-east towards the south-west
(v) Usually most severe within the months of November to February
(vi) It is hazy and therefore reduces visibility
[any five]

(b) Ways in which the harmattan is useful

(i) Agriculture – Harvested crops dry faster and therefore preserves them for longer periods due to the hot and dry nature makes
(ii) Clothes Drying – Washed clothes dry faster due to the hot and dry nature makes
(iii) Salt Production – More salt can be produced at a faster rate due to high evaporation as a result of the hot and dry nature.
(iv) Land Preparation – The little or no rainfall during the period offers farmers the
opportunity to prepare their lands for the next farming season
(v) Resting and Planning – Farmers take advantage of the low agricultural activity due to the trade winds to rest and plan for the next season. [any two]

(c) Disadvantages of the harmattan

(i) Skin Drying / Personal Discomfort – The hot and dry winds cause very fast evaporation
of water vapour from people‟s skin, making it dry quickly and therefore causing people
to feel very uncomfortable
(ii) Dusty atmosphere – The atmosphere becomes very dusty due to large quantities of suspended dust particles.
(iii) Diseases – Diseases, especially air-borne ones, spread easily during the harmattan, due to the hot, dry and windy.
(iv) Poor visibility – The hazy nature of the winds greatly reduce visibility. The reduced
visibility adversely affects transportation and other activities.
(v) Bush fires – The hot and dry nature makes plants dry up. The dry plants catch fire easily and bush fires result
(vi) Decrease in volume of water bodies – High evaporation and lack of rainfall during the
period causes water bodies to reduce in volume
[any three]

PART II
THE NATIONAL COMMUNITY

9. (a) Achievements of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah.
(i) Student Leadership – He was a founding member and President of the African Students
Association of America and Canada
(ii) Awards – He was voted “Most Outstanding Professor(lecturer)-Of-The-Year by “The
Linconian” in 1945 and “BBC Man of the Millennium” in 2000.
(iii) Books / Publications – He wrote several books, including his first one, “Towards
Colonial Freedom” in 1947.
(iv) UGCC – He was the first General Secretary of the United Gold Coast Convention
(UGCC) in 1947
(v) CPP – He was the founder and leader of the Convention People‟s Party in June 1949
(vi) Independence – He led the fight for Ghana to attain independence from Britain.
(vii) Elections /Imprisonment– He won an election for the Accra Central seat by a wide margin while still in prison in 1951
(viii) Legislature – He was released from prison and became Leader of Government Business in 1951
(ix) Prime Ministry (Gold Coast) – He was the first Prime Minister of the Gold Coast in
1952
(x) Prime Ministry (Ghana) – He was the first Prime Minister of independent Ghana from
1957 to1960
(xi) Adomi Bridge – He completed the construction of the Adomi bridge on the Volta River in 1957
(xii) Tema motorway – He constructed the Tema motorway and township in 1960. (xiii) Presidency – He became the first President of the Republic of Ghana from in 1960
(xiv) Education – He introduced the Education Act, which made primary education free and compulsory in 1961
(xv) Tema Harbour – He completed the construction of The Tema Harbour in 1962. (It
started in the 1950s)
(xvi) Tertiary Education – He established several institutions of higher learning, eg, Kwame
Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in 1952 and Cape Coast University in
1962
(xvii) Pan-Africanism – He played a leading role in the formation of the Organization of
African Unity (OAU) in 1963
(xviii) Akosombo Dam – He started building The Akosombo Dam in 1961 and completed in
1965
(xix) Agriculture – He introduced irrigation farming, particularly for rice and sugar cultivation at Komenda and Asutuare
(xx) Health – He built new hospitals, eg, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital at Kumasi and
Effia Nkwanta Hospital at Sekondi Takoradi
(xxi) Medical School – He established the University of Ghana Medical School at Korle-Bu, Accra in 1964
[any four]

(b) Reasons that led to the overthrow of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah

(i) The Preventive Detention Act – He introduced the Preventive Detention Act, which made it possible for his administration / associates to arrest and detain anyone, who opposed him or his administration, without trial / due process of law.
(ii) Trade Union Act – He called for the arrest of strike leaders in 1961 under the Trade
Union Act of 1958, which made strikes illegal.
(iii) One-Party State – He proposed a constitutional amendment that made CPP the only legal party and himself president for life
(iv) Government Debt. – He placed Ghana in debt by borrowing money for various developmental projects, including the building of the Akosombo Dam at a total cost of
£130 million.
(v) Increased Taxes – He is believed to have caused financial hardship for Cocoa farmers in
the south by raising taxes to generate more government revenue to finance Ghana‟s debt.
(vi) Compulsory Military Service – He introduced conscription (compulsory enrolment of citizens in the armed forces)
(vii) Support For Guerrillas – He gave military support to anti-British guerrillas in Rhodesia
(now Zimbabwe)
(viii) Financial Mismanagement – Some believed he was mismanaging the nation‟s finances, eg, giving ten million pounds to aid Guinea‟s to fight for independence, acquiring aircrafts and ships to modernize the armed forces, etc.
(ix) Foreign Policy – Some of his foreign policies did not please certain international powers, which eventually supported his overthrow.
(x) Corruption – His government was perceived to be corrupt, as he gave most top positions to CPP members only.
(xi) Preferential Treatment for Personal Guards – Dissatisfaction among sections of the regular army and police, as he allowed his personal security guard, known as the National Security Service and presidential Guard regiments, to supersede the duties of the regular
police
[any four]

10. (a) The four main vegetation types in Ghana.
(i) Guinea Savanna
(ii) Moist Semi Deciduoud Forest
(iii) Rain forest
(iv) Coastal shrub and grassland

(b) Ways by which the vegetation is being destroyed.

(i) Bush burning – Uncontrolled burning of plants over a wide area
(ii) Deforestation – Cutting down forest trees (usually, without replacement) (iii) Erosion – the removal of the top soil by agents of erosion
(iv) Mining – Mining activities by both legal and illegal miners has led to a rapid loss of tree over large portions of land.

(v) The Harmattan – The hot and dry North East Trade Winds do not support the growth of certain plants, which dry up when the harmattan is very severe.
(vi) Overgrazing – Making farm animals feed on plants in one area for a long time / till almost all the plants are gone.
(vii) Clearing Farmlands – Clearing a piece of land of all plants/trees in order to farm.
(viii) Construction / Development – Clearing a piece of land of all plants/trees in order to construct schools, offices, shops, roads, stadiums, residential buildings, etc [any four] (c) Ways by which the vegetation can be protected.
(i) Legislation – Making and enforcing laws that seek to preserve the forests (Legislation)
(ii) Prosecution and Punishment – Prosecuting and penalizing offenders who flout the forest preservation laws / by-laws / ethics to serve as a deterrent to others.
(iii) Creating forest reserves – Reserving forests that will be kept from human exploitation
(iv) Preventing overgrazing – Ensuring that farm animals do not feed on plants in one area continuously.
(v) Reforestation – Planting more trees to replace ones that have been cut down / felled
(vi) Management – Ensuring that only trees of a certain minimum size can be felled
(vii) Empowering government agencies – Empowering government agencies that responsible for forests preservation to work more efficiently (eg, the Environmental Protection Agency and The Forestry Commission)
(viii) Afforestation – Planting trees to create a forest – (Afforestation) (ix) Preventing bushfires – by public education and other measures
(x) Agro forestry – Planting trees on farms for various reasons / farming among trees without
cutting them down [any two]

PART III
WEST AFRICA, AFRICA AND THE WORLD

11. (a) Good effects that the coming of the Europeans had on West Africa.

(i) Formal Education – Introduction of formal education by the establishment of schools and colleges

(ii) Currency – Introduction of currency notes and coins as the medium of exchange to replace the barter system, which led to a better commercial system

(iii) Christianity – The spread of Christianity, which made people more morally concsious

(iv) Legal System – The introduction of the formal legal system, which helped to maintain law and order

(v) Health – The establishment of clinics and hospitals and the training of health professionals, which helped to improve the delivery of health to the people

(vi) Literacy – The development of alphabet for local languages, which led to writing and reading of local languages and English

(vii) Agriculture – The introduction of better agricultural implements and methods, which led to higher yield from the agricultural sector.

(viii) Architecture – The introduction of new and improved physical structures, which were much more stronger and beautiful – a number of which are still standing strong to date.

(ix) Tourism – The creation of tourist sites, such as the forts and castles, out of which the state still gets revenue.

(x) Infrastructure – The development of better infrastructure, eg, roads, railway lines, harbour, etc, which has significantly improved the economy of the country. [any four] (b) Bad effects of the coming of the Europeans on West Africa
(i) Changes in our cultural system
(ii) Over-dependence on the colonial masters
(iii) Loss of national identity
(iv) Divisions among peoples of the same tribe / ethnic group
(v) Exploitation of our natural and mineral resources
(vi) Promotion of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
(vii) The loss of active manpower through the Trans-Atlantic slave trade
(viii) Loss of respect and dignity of Africans
(ix) Loss of independence to colonial masters
(x) Increased tribal wars, with the introduction of guns and gunpowder. (xi) Mental slavery – inability of directing our own affairs
(xii) Collapse of local / traditional industries [any four]

12. (a) World Health Organization (WHO)
The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health. It was established in 1948. Its headquarters is Geneva, Switzerland.

(b) Achievements of WHO
(i) Reproductive Choices – The introduction of modern contraception in the 1950s and 60s. (ii) Health Technologies – The introduction of screening programmes, microbicides,
mammograms, PAP tests, etc, have contributed to health delivery.
(iii) Maternal Health Improvements – through various maternal health interventions of the
WHO
(iv) Immunization Programs – to eradicate the six childhood killer diseases and others
(v) Vaccines Development – The development of effective vaccines against the six childhood killer diseases
(vi) Educational Campaigns – Educational campaigns on proper sanitation and personal hygiene, in collaboration with central and local governments
(vii) Potable Water – Provision of safe drinking water in rural communities, in partnership with governments
(viii) Disease Control – Effective control of diseases such as bilharzia, SARS, H1N1, cholera,
etc
[any four]

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