SECTION B ESSAY
Answer three questions only, choosing one question from each section.
Credit will be given for clarity of expression and orderly presentation of material
All questions carry equal marks
GOVERNMENT, POLITICS AND STABILITY
Answer one question only from this part.
1. (a) (b) (c) Give two reasons why the British colonized Ghana.
List three main ways by which the British colonized Ghana.
State five benefits which Ghana has derived from British colonization.
What are human rights abuses?
Give four examples of such abuses.
Explain two ways by which human rights abuses can be prevented.
Answer one question only from this part
3. (a) (b) State any four ways by which water can be polluted in Ghana. Explain any three effects of water pollution.
Describe the following:
(i) rotation of the earth; (ii) revolution of the earth.
Mention any two effects of each of the following: (i) rotation of the earth,
(ii) revolution of the earth.
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Answer one question only from this part.
5. (a) (b) (c) Name four areas of tourist attraction in Ghana. State four benefits of tourism in Ghana.
Describe two negative effects of tourism in Ghana.
State four contributions of the manufacturing industry to the economy of Ghana. List any four problems facing the manufacturing industry in Ghana. CLICK TO VIEW ANSWERS TO PART 2
GOVERNMENT, POLITICS AND STABILITY
1. (a) Reasons why the British colonized Ghana.
(i) Trade – To trade in gold, spices, salt and other raw materials to feed their industries
(ii) Exploration and Exploitation– To explore and exploit the natural resources of Ghana, such as gold, bauxite, manganese and timber
(iii) Evangelism – aTo preach the gospel and spread Christianity
(iv) Prestige – To expand their territories and influence in Africa – the more territories they colonize, the more powerful they are seen to be.
(v) Civilisation – To promote modern civilization in Africa
(b) Main ways by which the British colonized Ghana.
(i) Agreements / Treaties / Bonds – They made / signed agreements / bonds / treaties with some local traditional rulers and also with other European nations to facilitate the colonization process
(ii) Persuasion – They persuaded the northern chiefs into accepting their offer of protection from the French and Germans
(iii) Force / Conquest – They fought against the Asantes, conquered them and thereafter,
forced them to become part of their colony
[any three] (c) Benefits which Ghana has derived from British colonization.
(i) Formal Education – Introduction of formal education by the establishment of schools and colleges
(ii) Currency – Introduction of currency notes and coins as the medium of exchange to replace the barter system, which led to a better commercial system
(iii) Christianity – The spread of Christianity, which made people more morally concsious
(iv) Legal System – The introduction of the formal legal system, which helped to maintain law and order
(v) Health – The establishment of clinics and hospitals and the training of health professionals, which helped to improve the delivery of health to the people
(vi) Literacy – The development of alphabet for local languages, which led to writing and reading of local languages and English
(vii) Agriculture – The introduction of better agricultural implements and methods, which led to higher yield from the agricultural sector.
(viii) Architecture – The introduction of new and improved physical structures, which were much more stronger and beautiful – a number of which are still standing strong to date.
(ix) Tourism – The creation of tourist sites, such as the forts and castles, out of which the state still gets revenue.
(x) Infrastructure – The development of better infrastructure, eg, roads, railway lines, harbour, etc, which has significantly improved the economy of the country.
2. (a) Human rights abuses?
The violation / breach of the rights and freedoms of an individual
(b) Examples of such abuses.
(i) Killing a person, except on orders of a law court or in self-defence (abuses one‟s right to
(ii) Detaining a suspect without charge beyond 48 hours (abuses one‟s right to personal
(iii) Caning /beating up someone in public (abuses one‟s right to dignity)
(iv) Publishing a false accusation / insults of someone (abuses one‟s right to dignity)
(v) Depriving someone of his/her private property, except by law (abuses ones right to private property)
(vi) Preventing someone from expressing his / her opinion, except it breaches law and order.
(abuses one‟s right to freedom of expression)
(vii) Preventing someone from joining a group of his / her choice. (abuses one‟s right to
freedom of association)
(viii) Disallowing a person from practising his / her religion of choice. (abuses one‟s right to
freedom of religion)
(ix) Discriminating against someone based on his/ her gender / tribe / colour / religion / belief
/ social status (abuses one‟s right to equality)
(c) Ways by which human rights abuses can be prevented.
(i) Increased public education
Many people do not even know their human rights. The ignorance facilitates the abuse of their rights by others. Education by government agencies and other bodies is therefore necessary to reduce the levels of abuse or even prevent it. The education must include
– what one‟s human rights are,
– how to prevent abuse of one‟s rights by others,
– steps to take in case of abuse
– measures to forestall future occurrences
(ii) Strengthening of our democratic and governmental institutions and agencies Institutions such as DOVVSU, CHRAJ, the Ghana Police Service and the law courts must be strengthened, equipped and empowered to deal with human rights abuse cases more effectively and swiftly.
(iii) Improving access to both formal and non-formal education
The high levels of illiteracy also contribute to the general ignorance of human rights. Where people are able to read and understand text on their own, it facilitates quicker and easier gaining of knowledge of human rights and other issues. It is therefore necessary to improve access to both formal and non-formal education.
(iv) Modification of cultural practices which tend to infringe on human rights
Certain cultural practices or aspects of them that infringe on human rights must be either changed or modified. Some of these practices are puberty rites, widowhood rites, forced marriages, female genital mutilation, etc. Certain aspects, of these practices, which are painful, shameful, humiliating or dehumanising must be either stopped or modified to more acceptable forms, which do not infringe on one‟s human rights
(v) Greater involvement of religious / traditional society
Religious bodies and traditional leaders must come together to address / modify certain practices in their religions or culture which tend to infringe on the fundamental rights of members or even non-members. They should also help with the public campaign against human right abuse, since their followers take their word more seriously.
(vi) Prompt reporting of abuse cases to the appropriate institutions
People who have been abused, their families, friends, the media and society in general must cultivate the habit of reporting human rights abuse cases promptly. This would stop further abuse and prevent future occurrence if the right measures are taken.
(vii) Prompt prosecution and punishment of offenders
Offenders, who are caught, should be promptly made to face the full rigours of the law.
This should serve as a deterrent to others and hence prevent further similar abuses in future.
(viii) Poverty alleviation (or wealth creation) programmes for the people
As a result of poverty, many people suffer in silence as their human rights are abused regularly, since they may not have the money to even take the necessary measures. There is therefore the need to run more wealth creation projects in order for people to come out of
poverty and gain financial and social freedom
3. (a) Ways by which water can be polluted in Ghana.
(i) Crude Oil spillage on the sea
(ii) Disposal of sewage into water bodies
(iii) Disposal of chemicals into water bodies
(iv) Dumping of industrial waste into water bodies
(v) Disposal of solid waste (faeces) into water bodies
(vi) Disposal of refuse / domestic waste into water bodies
(b) Effects of water pollution.
(i) It leads to the spread of water-borne diseases, eg, schistosomiasis, cholera
(ii) It causes the death of fishes and other organisms that live in water
(iii) It makes water unsafe for domestic use
(iv) It causes loss of revenue to fishermen and the government
(v) It increases the cost of water treatment
(vi) It could lead to unemployment of those who derived their livelihood from the water bodies, eg, fishermen, tour guides
4. (a) Description:
(i) rotation of the earth;
The turning movement of the earth around its axis
It takes 24 hours / 1 day to complete one rotation
(ii) revolution of the earth.
The circular / elliptical movement of the earth on its orbit around the sun
It takes 365 ¼ days / 1 year to complete one revolution
(b) Effects of each of the following: (i) Rotation of the earth
Day and night
Differences in time (time zones) on the earth
Certain movements of air masses / winds
The bulging of the earth at the equator
Movements of ocean currents
Rising and falling of sea levels (high and low tides)
Changes in the earth‟s magnetic fields
(ii) Revolution of the earth.
The four seasons (Summer, autumn, winter and spring)
Different lengths of day and night at different times of the year
The lunar and solar eclipses (ie, eclipses of the moon and sun)
The different altitudes of the midday sun at different times of the year.
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
5. (a) Areas of tourist attraction in Ghana.
(ii) Historical sites, Forts and Castles
Cape Coast Castle,
Elmina Castle, Osu Castle,
Fort St. Jago
James Fort, etc
Salaga Slave Market
Komfo Anokye Sword site
(iii) Relief features
Gambaga escarpment, etc
(iv) Ecotourism (Nature, Game and Forest reserves)
Kakum National Park,
Mole National Park,
Ankasa National Park,
Digya National Park,
Paga Crocodile Pond,
Boabeng Fiema Monkey Sanctuary
Shai Nature Reserve
Aburi Botanical Gardens
The „Big Tree‟ at Oda.
(v) Zoos –
(vi) Water bodies
(vii) Museums and mausoleum
West African Historical Museum
Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum [any four] (b) Benefits of tourism in Ghana.
(i) Foreign exchange earner for Ghana
– The nation earns a lot of foreign exchange from the tourism industry through payment of fees, fares, duties, etc, in foreign currencies by tourists who come into the country.
(ii) Source of revenue to the government of Ghana.
– Ghana earns a great deal of revenue from tourism through payment of income tax, import duties, Value Added Tax (VAT), royalties, levies, etc. by Hotels, Restaurants, Tourist site operators, Airlines, etc.
(iii) Tourist sites promotes the development of communities
The location of tourist sites sometimes causes the development of certain social amenities close to it eg, the construction of roads to the site, the drawing of electricity / water to the community, etc. These are done to make tourists feel more comfortable and hence attract more tourists.
(iv) Source of employment
– Tourism provides employment directly and indirectly to various kinds of people.
Examples of such people are tour guides, security men, hotel workers, airport staff, airline workers, etc
(v) Promotes environmental preservation
– When certain natural resources such as forest reserves, game parks, waterfalls, lakes, etc, are uses as tourist attraction sites, they are preserved / maintained. This promotes a healthy and preserved natural environment.
(vi) Helps to attract foreign investors into the country
– When tourists come into the country, they may identify sectors of the economy which they might consider investing in.
(vii) Gives a boost to the local artefacts industry
– Tourists who come into the country usually buy locally made artefacts as souvenirs.
The high patronage of the artefacts provide income to the producers as well as advertise Ghana in their home countries
(c) Negative Effects of tourism in Ghana.
(i) Influence of foreign culture, eg, wearing clothes that expose the body, profane music, heavy smoking and drinking
(ii) Spread of diseases / infections, such as HIV/AIDS, gonorrhoea, hepatitis
(iii) Increase in social vices / criminal activities, such as drug abuse, armed robbery, prostitution, etc
(iv) Environmental degradation, such as destruction of vegetation for roads or hotels, littering,
pollution by refuse and other waste materials, killing of animals for food and artefacts, etc
[any two] 6. (a) Contributions of the manufacturing industry to the economy of Ghana. (i) Helps the country to earn and conserve foreign exchange
– by exporting the secondary products
(ii) It reduces the nation’s over-reliance on foreign goods
– by producing the goods that the nation would have otherwise imported from other countries
(iii) It adds value to the basic / raw materials
– which helps to generates more income for both the sector industries and the government.
(iv) Helps in the development of infrastructure
– as part of their social responsibility programmes, the sector industries may help to provide various forms of infrastructure
(v) Creates job opportunities for the people
– by employing people with the right skills and training to work in the sector industries.
(vi) It reduces the rural-urban migration
– in the cases where production centres or branches or agencies are located in the rural areas.
(vii) It increases the sources of income to the government
– by the payments of taxes and other levies.
(viii) Reduces the margins of post harvest loss
– as raw materials are processed into finished and semi-finished products.
(b) Problems facing the manufacturing industry in Ghana.
(i) Lack of ready market for certain goods
(ii) Irregular supply of electricity
(iii) Inadequate supply of water for production
(iv) Insufficient capital for adequate growth and expansion
(v) Low standard of skilled labour (workers)
(vi) Inadequate use of modern technology and methods
(vii) High tax burden on industries
(viii) Low development of transportation network
(ix) Insufficient supply of raw materials
(x) High costs of production inputs